Twenty-three (23). In October 1836, the Texas Congress created twenty-three (23) counties based on the municipalities in existence at the time of Texas independence. As the population increased, the Republic of Texas Congress created new counties in order for the people to be better served. During the next few years, the Texas Congress divided counties with large land areas to place a county seat closer to existing communities. By 1845, Texas had a total of thirty-six (36) counties.1 Today there are 254 counties in Texas.