Colonel Ronald S. Mackenzie arrested Satanta, Satank, and Big Tree, members of the Kiowa Tribe, for their leadership role in the massacre of the Warren wagon train crew en route from Weatherford to Fort Griffin. Mackenzie ordered them to be sent to Jacksboro to stand trial for murder in a Texas district court. Satank died in an escape attempt while being escorted from Fort Sill. At the trial, Satanta and Big Tree received sentences of death by hanging. While awaiting their execution at the Texas state penitentiary in Huntsville, they had their sentences commuted to life in prison by Governor Edmund J. Davis because military leaders thought the executions would cause a Kiowa uprising. In 1873, Governor Davis paroled Satanta and Big Tree when easterners brought political pressure to bear for the warriors’ release.